### How the D40 handles a multi dimensional problem

There are three dimensions to exposure:
1. Aperture
2. Shutter speed
3. Sensitivity
In film days adjusting sensitivity on the fly was not practical, so you basically had a two dimensional plane once you loaded film.

The life of the camera computer was easy when you set the camera to A or S modes: all it had to do was adjust the free variable to maintain correct exposure. In M mode the camera merely informed you of exposure letting you roam freely in this 2D space.

The D40 can be setup exactly this way if you select fixed ISO. If you select auto ISO, however, the camera now is handed two free parameters (for A and S) and one free parameter (for M). How does the D40 deal with this?

For A mode the computer minimizes ISO and maximizes shutter speed. You can set a lower limit for Shutter speed and upper limit for ISO and the camera will drop shutter speed until it hits the lower limit and the start to bump ISO.

For S mode the computer minimizes ISO. It will maximize the aperture until it reaches the lens' limit. The it bumps ISO.

This all sounds sensible, but what about M mode? This is funny. In M mode you no longer have the freedom to mess with exposure - the camera runs loose with ISO changing it to give you correct exposure regardless of your A and S combination. Eventually it hits the camera ISO limits and starts to show you over- and under-exposure.

M mode with auto-ISO will enable you to play with particular shutter (motion capturing) and aperture (DOF) combinations for your subject that would normally be inaccessible to you (cumbersome with manual ISO, impractical with film).

### Flowing text in inkscape (Poster making)

You can flow text into arbitrary shapes in inkscape. (From a hint here).

You simply create a text box, type your text into it, create a frame with some drawing tool, select both the text box and the frame (click and shift) and then go to text->flow into frame.

UPDATE:

Trying to enter sentence so that text forms the number three...any ideas?
The solution:
Type '3' using the text toolConvert to path using object->pathSize as necessaryRemove fillUngroupType in actual text in new text boxSelect the text and the '3' pathFlow the text

### Pandas panel = collection of tables/data frames aligned by index and column

Pandas panel provides a nice way to collect related data frames together while maintaining correspondence between the index and column values:

import pandas as pd, pylab #Full dimensions of a slice of our panel index = ['1','2','3','4'] #major_index columns = ['a','b','c'] #minor_index df = pd.DataFrame(pylab.randn(4,3),columns=columns,index=index) #A full slice of the panel df2 = pd.DataFrame(pylab.randn(3,2),columns=['a','c'],index=['1','3','4']) #A partial slice df3 = pd.DataFrame(pylab.randn(2,2),columns=['a','b'],index=['2','4']) #Another partial slice df4 = pd.DataFrame(pylab.randn(2,2),columns=['d','e'],index=['5','6']) #Partial slice with a new column and index pn = pd.Panel({'A': df}) pn['B'] = df2 pn['C'] = df3 pn['D'] = df4 for key in pn.items: print pn[key] -> output …

### Drawing circles using matplotlib

Use the pylab.Circle command

import pylab #Imports matplotlib and a host of other useful modules cir1 = pylab.Circle((0,0), radius=0.75, fc='y') #Creates a patch that looks like a circle (fc= face color) cir2 = pylab.Circle((.5,.5), radius=0.25, alpha =.2, fc='b') #Repeat (alpha=.2 means make it very translucent) ax = pylab.axes(aspect=1) #Creates empty axes (aspect=1 means scale things so that circles look like circles) ax.add_patch(cir1) #Grab the current axes, add the patch to it ax.add_patch(cir2) #Repeat pylab.show()